Rituals, Music and oral traditions are at the centre of hunter-gatherers cultural resilience. Great similarities in vocal polyphonic singing styles between African Pygmies and similar taboos around reproduction and food suggest ancient relationships and long-term survival of these cultural traits. In the Philippines, music seems also similar among hunter-gatherer groups, with similar meanings and social functions. Our project is studying music structures, taboos, cultural traditions, religion, the importance of oral histories and play for the cultural and biological resilience of different hunter-gatherer groups.