The Resilience project will generate new genetic data of hunter-gatherer populations under study as well as combine publicly available genetic data to assess the relative contribution of the processes that shape and maintain genetic diversity over time in those populations. Indeed, genetic data combined with population genetic methods can be used to investigate hunter-gatherer demographic history, since neutral genetic variation is shaped by, and therefore reflects, demographic history, while genetic variation in and around genes determining key phenotypic traits is shaped by, and therefore reflects, adaptation history. We can use these data/methods to address issues including (i) changes in hunter-gatherer effective population size through time (e.g. before/after the spread of agriculture started); (ii) levels of admixture with neighbouring populations and levels of inbreeding between and within populations; (iii) population-specific genetic adaptations, such as adaptation associated with diet, climate and/or pathogens.