Life history theory predicts that changes in life cycles (such as when to reproduce, how much to grow and for how long, the length of reproductive lifespan and rates of senesce) are associated with energetic trade-offs and ultimately with how risky the environment. There is a lot of variation in life history patterns among living hunter-gatherer populations, which is likely to be associated with how “safe” their environments are and how much resources are available for them. Resilience project investigates how hunter-gatherers adapt their life cydcles to specific environmental and social pressures; as well as how the new growing pressures, such as increased growth of neighbouring populations (farming and urbanization) are affecting hunter-gatherers life-history health and biology.